IMPORTANT YEARS OF INDIAN HISTORY
History of India
|1851||First telegraph line in India is operational between Calcutta and Diamond Harbour.|
|1853||First train in India runs from Bombay to Thane.|
|1857||First war of Indian independence also called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British.|
|1881||The first complete census of population conducted on a uniform basis throughout India.|
|1885||Formation of Indian National Congress by A.O. Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, W.C. Bonnerjee and others.|
|1905||Partition of Bengal by Lord Curzon. Swadeshi Movement launched.|
|1909||Indian Council Act popularly known as Minto Morley reforms allowing a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in governance passed.|
|1911||Visit of King George V to India, Shifting of capital from Calcutta to Delhi. Jana Gana Mana first sung at Calcutta session of INC. Launch of first air mail in India & World from Bumraulli to Allahabad.|
|1919||Government of India Act, 1919 introducing dyarchy, Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh tragedy.|
|1920||Khilafat movement, Launch of Non-cooperation movement.|
|1922||Chauri Chaura outrage in UP, Suspension of Non-cooperation movement.|
|1928||Visit of Simon Commission to India, Death of Lala Lajpat Rai|
|1929||Resolution of complete independence at Lahore session of Indian National Congress.|
|1930||Dandi March, Launch of the Civil Disobedience Movement.|
|1931||Gandhi Irwin pact, execution of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru.|
|1935||Government of India Act.|
|1942||Quit India movement, Formation of Azad Hind Fauz.|
|1943||Visit of Cripps Commission to India.|
|1946||British Cabinet mission visited India.|
|1947||Independence and partition of India.|
|1948||Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, 1st Pak aggression|
|1950||India became republic|
|1951||1st Five year plan and 1st Asian Games in Delhi|
|1952||1st General elections|
|1954||Panchasheel signed by India and China|
|1956||Reorganisation of Indian states on linguistic basis, India’s first nuclear reactor, Apsara, achieved criticality.|
|1957||Introduction of decimal system in currency|
|1959||First television service started in India in New Delhi.|
|1961||Liberation of Goa from the Portuguese|
|1964||Death of Jawaharlal Nehru|
|1966||Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri|
|1969||Split in Indian National Congress and nationalisation of 14 banks. India’s first Atomic Power Station Tarapur commences commercial operation.|
|1972||Simla agreement signed between India and Pakistan|
|1974||First nuclear test codenamed Smiling Buddha carried out at Pokhran (Rajasthan)(May 18).|
|1975||First Indian satellite Aryabhatta launched, Imposition of Emergency in the country.|
|1977||Congress loses power for the first time at the centre|
|1980||Return of Congress to power, nationalisation of six more banks.|
|1982||Colour television comes to India. IX Asian Games held in Delhi.|
|1984||Death of Indira Gandhi.|
|1991||Death of Rajiv Gandhi. Commencement of economic liberalisation in India.|
|1992||Demolition of Babri Masjid.|
|1995||Internet comes to India.|
|1998||India’s second nuclear test codenamed Operation Shakti.|
|1999||Kargil invasion by Pakistani troops.|
|2000||India’s population reaches 1 billion mark.|
|2001||Earthquake in Gujarat (January), Attack on Indian Parliament (December).|
|2004||Tsunami in Indian Ocean.|
|2008||Launch of India’s first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1.|
|2013||Launch of Mars Orbiter Mission.|
The Indus Valley Civilisation
History of India
The main Indian human progress emerged in the Indus valley around 2,600 BC. It really straddled northwest India and Pakistan. By 6,500 BC the general population of the territory had started cultivating. By 5,500 BC they had designed stoneware. By around 2,600 BC a prosperous cultivating society had grown up.
The agriculturists utilized bronze apparatuses. They developed wheat, grain and peas. They additionally raised steers, goats and sheep. Water wild ox were utilized to pull trucks. The general population spun cotton and they exchanged with different societies, for example, current Iraq.
A portion of the general population of the Indus Valley started to live in towns. The two biggest were at Mohenjo-daro and Harrapa.
Mohenjo-daro most likely had a populace of 35-50,000. By the gauges of the antiquated world it was extensive. It comprised of two sections. One section was a fortification. It contained an open shower and gathering corridors. It additionally held a storehouse where grain was put away.
The lower some portion of the town had avenues spread out in a lattice design. The houses were 2 or even 3 stories and were made of block as stone was remarkable in the zone. Blocks were of a standard size and the Indus Valley human progress had standard weights and measures.
The roads had systems of channels.
Life in Mohenjo-daro was clearly exceedingly edified and requested albeit a large portion of the general population of the Indus Valley progress were ranchers outside the towns.
The Indus Valley human advancement had a type of composing however shockingly it has not been deciphered so nothing is known about their political framework or their religion.
Anyway many engraved seals and earthenware dolls have been found. The Indus Valley human advancement was at its crest in the years 2,300-1,700 BC. At that point after 1,700 BC it separated.
After the fall of the Indus Valley human advancement another flood of individuals entered India. The Aryans originated from focal Asia and they presumably entered India through Afghanistan after 1500 BC. There were presumably rushes of intrusions over some undefined time frame as opposed to only one. The Aryans were a semi-itinerant race of pastoralists.
At first they meandered about with their groups of cows instead of live in one place. They had 2-wheeled chariots which enabled them to quell the local individuals. By 1,000 BC they had figured out how to utilize press. Anyway in time the Aryans settled down and moved toward becoming agriculturists.
Gradually a progressively requested and settled society developed. Clans progressed toward becoming kingdoms. The Aryans turned into the ministers, rulers and warriors, free workers and vendors. The curbed individuals turned into the slaves, workers and craftsmans.
In time this stratified society solidified into the station framework. The Hindu religion likewise developed as of now. The consecrated writing called The Vedas was made. (At first they were orally transmitted. Later they were recorded.)
In time the Aryans figured out how to cultivate rice instead of products like grain. By 600 BC rice development was thriving in India. With a progressively settled and requested society exchange and trade prospered. In time individuals started to live in towns again and composing was re-imagined. By 600 BC an exceedingly acculturated society had risen in India.
History of India
THE MAURYAN EMPIRE IN INDIA
In 322 BC Chandragupta Maurya moved toward becoming ruler of the incredible and very unified province of Magadha in the North of India. Chandragupta established an incredible realm. After Alexander the Great kicked the bucket his realm split up. Seleucus took the eastern part.
He endeavored to recover the Indian regions once managed by Alexander. Anyway his military was halted by Chandragupta in 305 BC. Seleucus was then compelled to surrender the majority of Afghanistan to Chandragupta, who likewise vanquished parts of focal India.
This new realm was rich and exchange flourished. Its capital was one of the biggest urban communities in the antiquated world. In 296 Chandragupta abandoned for his child Bindusara who pushed the boondocks of the realm further south. The best Mauryan ruler was Ashoka or Asoka (269-232 BC).
He vanquished Kalinga (advanced Orissa). A short time later he announced he was shocked by the enduring caused by war and ruled against any further triumph. Asoka likewise changed over to Buddhism.
He declared that the Buddhist standards of right lead ought to be engraved in stone columns or on rocks all through his kingdom to show the general population how to live. Asoka start appeasing and merging his domain. Anyway notwithstanding his change to Buddhism Mauryan rule was tyrant and disciplines for transgressors were extreme.
THE INDO – GREEKS IN INDIA
After Alexander the Great‘s demise his realm was part between his commanders. The different successor states battled each other until the point when a solid state rose in Bactria (generally current Afghanistan).
The Greek leaders of Bactria endeavored to control Northwest India.
INDIA IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY AND EARLY 20 TH CENTURY
After the exercise of the Indian Mutiny the British turned into somewhat more aware of Indian culture. Anyway the craving for freedom did not pass on. Despite what might be expected it gradually developed. The Indian National Congress was established in 1885. The Muslim League was established in 1906.
In 1861 administrative bodies was framed for India. Anyway the individuals were not chosen. They were delegated by the representative general or by common governors.
The vast majority of their individuals were British. Moreover after the revolt the proportion of British warriors to Indians was expanded. In 1877 Queen Victoria was made Empress of India.
In the late nineteenth century the British made a system of railroads in India. By 1900 there were 25,000 miles of railroad in India. The primary train made in India was worked in Bombay in 1865. The British additionally manufactured new streets crosswise over India.
Enhanced interchanges implied the diverse parts of India were purchased nearer together and Indians started to feel a more noteworthy feeling of national personality. In the late nineteenth century numerous papers were established and they activated general conclusion.
In 1942 the National Congress requested that the British quit India. The British reacted by detaining their pioneers, including Gandhi, who was discharged in 1944.
In 1946 the Viceroy designated a break bureau with Jawaharlal Nehru as leader. Mountbatten was then made emissary. India ended up free on 15 August 1947.
Mountbatten consented to remain in India as Governor-general for a break period. Unfortunately Gandhi was killed on 30 January 1948.
In December 1946 a Constituent Assembly got to draw together a constitution for India. The new constitution came into power in January 1950.
India turned into a mainstream state. Executive Nehru made the economy a ‘blended economy’ of some state possessed industry and some private endeavor. Industry was entirely controlled. Lamentably this confined free endeavor.
History of India
INDIAN IN THE LATE 20TH CENTURY
During the 1960s India battled two wars. In 1962 there was a contention with China.
contention with China. along the outskirt among India and Tibet in the late 1950s.
At that point on 20 October 1962 Chinese troops assaulted along the North-eastern
fringe of India. They immediately caught key mountain passes and redrew the fringe. On 21 November the Chinese pronounced a truce.
INDIA IN THE 21st CENTURY
During the 1990s the Indian economy was deregulated further and accordingly it blasted. In the mid 21st century the economy of India developed quickly. Later on India will turn into a prosperous nation. Today the number of inhabitants in India is 1.281 billion.