Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar



  • 12 Jul 100 BCE – 15 Mar 44 BCE

    Life of Gaius Julius Caesar, founder of the Roman Empire.
  • c. 69 BCE – 12 Aug 30 BCE
    Life of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
  • 65 BCE
    Julius Caesar becomes aedilecurule in Rome.
  • 60 BCE – 53 BCE
    First Triumvirate’ between Caesar, Pompey and Crassus.
  • 58 BCE
    Caesar attacks the Helvetii while on migration and defeats them.
  • 58 BCE
    Julius Caesar invades Gaul. Roman influence on the European tribes begins in earnest.
  • 58 BCE – 51 BCE
    Julius Caesar’s conquest of Gaul.
  • 57 BCE
    A Roman army under Caesarnarrowly defeats an army of Nervii, Atrebates, and Viromandui.
  • 55 BCE – 54 BCE
    Julius Caesar invades Britaintwice.
  • 55 BCE
    Caesar attempts to invade Britain.
  • 54 BCE
    Caesar successfully invades Britain but withdraws to Gaul.
  • 54 BCE – 53 BCE
    Ambiorix of the Eburones tribe destroys around 9,000 Roman soldiers at Atuatuca.
  • 54 BCE – 29 BCE
    Forum of Caesar constructed in Rome by Julius Caesar as another area to conduct judicial business. It is the best surviving of his monuments.
  • 53 BCE
    Julius Caesar holds council of Gallic tribes in Lutetia.
  • 52 BCE
    Caesar defeated at Gergovia by Vercingetorix.
  • 52 BCE
    After becoming trapped and besieged at Alesia, Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar.
  • 51 BCE
    Caesar’s siege and capture of Uxellodunum ends the Gallic War.
  • 49 BCE
    Caesar crosses the Rubicon. Civil war between Caesar and Pompey begins.
  • 49 BCE
    Julius Caesar besieges Massilia.
  • 49 BCE
    Julius Caesar captures Brundisium in southern Italy.
  • 48 BCE
    Caesar defeats Pompey(battle of Pharsalus); Pompey flees to Egypt and is killed by courtiers of Ptolemy XIII.
  • 48 BCE
    Caesar arrives in Egypt and orders Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII to disband their armies, but instead, warbreaks out.
  • 23 Jun 47 BCE
    Birth of Cleopatra’s son, named Caesarion; Caesar is said to be the father.
  • c. 46 BCE
    Julius Caesar mints the largest quantity of gold coins ever seen in Rome.
  • 46 BCE
    Julius Caesar celebrates a triple triumph in Rome.
  • 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar is murdered.
  • 44 BCE
    Julius Caesar founds the Roman colony of Corinth.
  • 29 BCE
    The Temple of Divus Julius, dedicated to the deified Julius Caesar, is added to Rome’s Forum Romanum.
  • 47 CE – 50 CE
    Londinium (London) founded, roads constructed.
    Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar was created 12 July 100 BCE (while some cite 102 as his birth year). His father, gaius Julius Caesar also, had been a Praetor who governed the province of Asia and his mom, Aurelia Cotta, was of noble birth. Both kept to the Populare ideology of Rome which favored democratization of authorities and much more rights for the low class instead of the Optimate factions’ declare of the superiority of the nobility and conventional Roman ideals which favored top of the classes. It must be comprehended that the Optimate and the Populare weren’t political parties incompatible with one another but, instead, political ideologies which numerous people shifted towards and from, of class in society regardless. The concept of appealing to the social individuals for support, rather than seeking authorization from the Roman Senate or another Patricians, works well for Caesar in life later.

YOUTH & MILITARY SERVICE

When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the relative head of the household. Deciding that from the priesthood would bring probably the most benefit to the grouped loved ones, he managed to possess himself nominated because the new Higher Priest of Jupiter. As a priest not merely needed to be of patrician share, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian lady and wedded the patrician, Cornelia, child of a higher profile and influential person in the Populares, Lucius Cinna. Once the Roman ruler Sulla declared himself dictator, he started a systematic purge of his enemies and of those who held to the Populare ideology particularly. Caesar had been fled and targeted Rome but his sentence was lifted through the intercession of his mom’s family. Still, he has been stripped of his placement as priest and his wife’s dowry had been confiscated. Left without method of assisting himself or his household, Caesar became a member of the army.

He proved himself a highly effective soldier, even becoming awarded the civic crown for saving a full life in battle, and was promoted to the personnel of the army legate to Bithynia to secure a fleet of ships. In this, as in his period as a soldier, Caesar was effective and, when Sulla passed away, he decided to go back to Rome and attempt his luck as an orator (a modern-day time lawyer). In this, as well, successful has been proved by him and became popular being an eloquent speaker.

This IS SAID THAT WHENEVER PIRATES TOLD HIM HE’D BE RANSOMED FOR 20 TALENTS, CAESAR CLAIMED This individual WAS WORTH AT THE VERY LEAST FIFTY.

In 75 BCE, while sailing to Greece, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held for ransom. Commensurate with the high viewpoint he previously of himself, it is stated that whenever he was told by the pirates he would become ransomed for twenty talents, Caesar claimed he had been worth at the very least fifty. While he happened captive by them, Caesar was treated well and maintained a friendly relationship with the pirates consistently. He is thought to have informed them that repeatedly, upon his release, he’d hunt them down and also have them crucified for the affront to his family and personal dignity which threat the pirates comprehended as a tale. Upon his release, however, Caesar made great on that danger. He previously the pirates’ throats slit before crucifixion, nevertheless, in a display of leniency due to their easy therapy of him in captivity. This dedication of Caesar’s, to accomplish precisely what he said he would do, grew to become one of is own defining features throughout his life.

THE FIRST TRIUMVIRATE

Back Rome, Caesar was elected army tribune and, his spouse Cornelia having died, wedded Pompeia, a wealthy Optimate granddaughter of the Emperor Sulla. Rising in prominence in Rome now, Caesar had sufficient prestige to effectively assistance Gnaeus Pompeius (later referred to as Pompey the fantastic) for a generalship. During this time period he became buddies with the wealthiest man in Rome also, Marcus Licinius Crassus. Crassus, it really is thought, assisted fund Caesar’s bid for election to the positioning of Chief Priest (Pontifex Maximus) which he received in 63 BCE. In 62 he has been elected praetor, divorced Pompeia following a scandal she had been implicated in with another guy, and sailed for Spain in 61 as Propraetor (governor) of Hispania.

Within Spain, Caesar defeated the warring rival tribes, brought stability to the spot, and won the non-public allegiance of his troops through his skill on the battlefield. He was awarded a consulship by the senate. Time for Rome with higher honors, Caesar entered right into a business/political contract with Crassus and Pompey, in 60 BCE, dubbed The First Triumvirate by contemporary scholars and historians (though nobody in historic Rome used that phrase). Caesar married Calpurnia, the girl of a powerful and rich Populare senator, and married his daughter Julia to Pompey to help expand cement their arrangements. The three men together after that ruled Rome effectively, Caesar as consul, by pushing through measures well-liked by Crassus or Pompey in the senate. Caesar proposed legislation for reform of authorities, opposing Optimate sentiment, and a redistribution of property to the indegent, both long-held Populare objectives. His initiatives were backed by Crassus’ prosperity and Pompey’s soldiers, solidly aligning THE INITIAL Triumvirate with the Populare faction thus. So long as Caesar has been a general public servant he had been secure from prosecution by his Optimate enemies for his lawful indiscretions but, as soon as his consulship finished, he was certain to be indicted. Additional, Caesar was with debt deeply, both and politically financially, to Crassus, and had a need to raise both cash and his prestige.

CAESAR’S CONQUEST OF GAUL

Recognizing the wealth in order to be gained via conquest, Caesar remaining Rome along with his legions plus went to Gaul within 58 BCE. He defeated the tribes there simply as he had carried out in Spain and guaranteed the borders of the provinces. Once the Germanic tribes appeared threatening to invade, Caesar constructed a bridge on the Rhine River, marched his legions across in a display of force, marched them back and experienced the bridge dismantled then. The message was understood by the Germans rather than invaded. He defeated the tribes of the north and two times invaded Britain (Rome’s 1st incursion into the Uk isles). At the Fight of Alesia, in 52 BCE, Caesar defeated the Gallic innovator Vercingetorix and finished the conquest of Gaul. He was right now efficiently the sovereign of the province of Gaul with the attendant prosperity at his disposal.

CROSSING THE RUBICON & CLEOPATRA

Than time for Rome as ordered rather, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his legions and marched on the populous city in 49 BCE. This is considered an take action of war because the Rubicon has been the border between your province of Gaul and Rome. Pompey, than fulfill Caesar’s legions in battle instead, fled to Spain and to Greece where he had been defeated by Caesar’s much smaller pressure at the Fight of Pharsalus in 48 BCE. Pompey himself escaped from the fight and visited Egypt where he likely to find buddies from his period spent there. Information of Caesar’s great triumph arrived at Egypt before him, nevertheless, and the Egyptians, believing that the gods favored Caesar over Pompey, got Pompey killed as he stepped on shore.

Caesar, arriving in Egypt in search of Pompey, claimed outrage more than Pompey’s dying, proclaimed martial legislation, and overran the royal palace. Based on the historian Durant, then delivered for Cleopatra VII secretly, co-regent with Ptolomey XIII who was simply was and deposed in exile, who acquired herself smuggled through enemy ranges rolled up in the carpet (in accordance with other sources, Cleopatra required the initiative herself, recognizing in Caesar her just desire to regain the throne). Caesar deposed the co-regent, Ptolemy XIII, and aligned himself with Cleopatra, igniting battle between Caesar’s legions and the Egyptian army. Besieged in the palace by the Egyptians under Achillas, Caesar and Cleopatra kept out for half a year until reinforcements found its way to March of 47 BCE and the Egyptian army has been defeated.

Caesar and Cleopatra appeared to have become lovers after meeting shortly, even that very night perhaps, and he remained within Egypt with her 9 weeks. The historian Suetonius writes, he “frequently feasted with Cleopatra till daybreak and could have been through Egypt with her in her royal barge nearly to Ethiopia hadn’t his soldiers threatened mutiny.” Within 47 BCE, Cleopatra offered birth to a child, Ptolemy Caesar (referred to as Caesarion) and proclaimed him her heir and successor to the throne.

Julius Caesar

EGYPT & THE ROMAN REFORMS

In Egypt, Cleopatra hoped Caesar would recognize and legitimize Caesarion as his heir and child. Caesar, however, called his grandnephew, Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian) heir. He did, nevertheless, bring Cleopatra, their boy, and her entourage, to Rome and arranged them up in a house which he visited regularly comfortably, even though he was married to Calpurnia. Although the senate appeared incensed by this indiscretion (because the bigamy laws in Rome had been strictly enforced) Caesar has been granted the title Dictator Perpetuus (dictator forever) in 44 BCE. Contrary to public opinion, he in no way held the name `emperor’.

He initiated many reforms including further land redistribution among the poor, property reform for veterans which eliminated the necessity to displace other residents, and also political reforms which proved unpopular with the senate. He ruled without respect to the senate, generally simply informing them which laws and regulations he quickly wanted exceeded and how, in order to consolidate and boost his own personal energy. He reformed the calendar, created a police, ordered the re-creating of Carthage, and abolished the taxes system, among a great many other bits of legislation (which quite several were long-time Populare objectives). His period as dictator is regarded as a prosperous one for Rome however the senators generally, and those on the list of Optimate faction especially, feared he was becoming too powerful and could abolish the senate completely to rule absolutely as a king soon.

CAESAR’S DEATH & AFTERMATH

Julius Caesar

On March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar was assassinated by the senators in the portico of the basilica of Pompey the fantastic. Among the assassins were Marcus Junius Brutus, Caesar’s second option as heir, and Gaius Cassius Longinus, alongside numerous others (some ancient resources cite as much as sixty assassins). Caesar has been stabbed twenty three occasions and passed away at the bottom of Pompey’s statue. The assassins, nevertheless, made the error of neglecting to strategy what they might do following Caesar’s dying and, by doing this, mistakenly permitted Marcus Antonius (Tag Antony), Caesar’s cousin and right-hand man, to call home. Mark Antony switched the tide of Roman well-known opinion contrary to the conspirators and, allied with Octavian, defeated the potent forces of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle associated with Philippi in 42 BCE.

Mark Antony afterwards allied himself with Cleopatra VIII of Egypt following a triumph and, Octavian thought, presented a considerable threat to Rome. With time, the previous allies went to battle and met in last fight. Cleopatra’s and Antony’s forces had been defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE plus they killed themselves per year later. Subsequent their deaths, Octavian purchased Cleopatra’s boy, Caesarion, murdered. After Octavian consolidated his power because the 1st emperor of Rome, he previously Caesar deified and, as his used heir, proclaimed himself a son of god and required the true name Augustus Caesar, Emperor. In doing this, he initiated the final finish of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.

 

 

 

 

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